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Active Measures Gone Awry: Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe, 1989-1992

Date: Fall 2011

No other country played a greater role in the ending of the Soviet empire in Central and Eastern Europe than Poland.
-Paul Goble

Between 1989 and 1992, an apparent emancipation of the captive nations occurred within the Soviet Bloc.  That was an unintended consequence of an effort by thte leadership of the Soviet Union to save socialism and their empire.  By attempting to reform, overtly and covertly, the Soviet leaders unleashed indomitable forces of freedom and lacked the stomach to exterminate them physically.  Hence, their empire imploded and they lost power.  One mechanism of change is transformation.  

A version of this article appeared in the International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Fall 2011). Please click here to purchase the full article.