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It’s time for Congress to hit the ‘reset’ button on public diplomacy, says Prof. James Carafano

George Kennan knew a thing or two about how nations treat one another.

In 1946, while serving as deputy chief of the U.S. mission in Moscow, he penned “the long telegram.” That assessment of what motivated the Soviet Union shaped U.S. policy toward Moscow for decades.

Later, at the new National War College, Kennan explained how “grand strategy” works. When nations compete, he told his students, they employ “varieties of skullduggery.” These included “persuasion, intimidation, deceit, corruption, penetration, subversion, horsetrading, bluffing, psychological pressure, economic pressure, seduction, blackmail, theft, rape, battle, murder, and sudden death.

“Don’t mistake that for a complete list,” he added.

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