America’s Eastern Tier: Poland between NATO and United Europe

Following the demise of the Soviet Union, the United States has remained the only superpower standing. Nonetheless, it faces several challenges including rogue, so-called “terrorist” states, a potentially menacing China, a broodingly resentful Russia, and a vexingly enigmatic European Union (EU). Although perfectly capable of defending its own territory, America’s foreign entanglements and commitments continuously…

Read More ›

Deception: Appeal for Acceptance; Discourse on Doctrine; Preface to Planning

The United States has rarely resorted to strategic deception, even when appropriate opportunities for its use have occurred and even though its adversaries have used it. The U.S. tends to view deception as unacceptable; yet, used knowledgeably and artfully, it can be a powerful, economic, and sometimes decisive instrument. Deception is an exceptional instrument of…

Read More ›

Pragmatism and Sympathy: Franco and East-Central Europe, 1939-1955

In her pioneering work, Professor Matilde Eiroa of the European University in Madrid explores the foreign policy of Francisco Franco toward East Central Europe (henceforth referred to as ECE). Its conduct reflected Franco’s political pragmatism first of all. However, although the author downplays them, ideological affinities and personal preferences also played an important role in…

Read More ›

A Zionist Multiculturalist for Compromise

Many a scholar strives to expound his thoughts in harmony with modern concerns. Thus,Dariusz Stola depicts an important Jewish nationalist leader and Polish politician as a precursor of the modern-day multiculturalist. Although this approach is perhaps quite valid, the author has fortunately limited such theorizing largely to the conclusion of Hope and Holocaust: Ignacy Schwarzbart…

Read More ›

The Warsaw Uprising 1944

The story of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 is grim. Over 200,000 Poles died, most of them civilians. The Polish independentist elite (which was anti-Nazi and anti-Communist) was decimated, in particular its youth who fought and sacrificed in the hopeless endeavor to regain the nation’s independence. The capital was in ruins, methodically blown up block…

Read More ›