Surprise, Warning, and Deception: An Introduction examines the problems of surprise, warning, and deception in the modern world with exclusive reference to state actors. The course does not address the problems of surprise, warning, and deception as regards terrorist and cyber attacks. The course seeks to assess the problems of surprise, warning, and deception with respect to their potential and actual impact on US Intelligence and national security strategy and policy. The course will approach the interrelated issues of warning, surprise, and deception from the following perspectives: historical, operational, analytical, cognitive, and national-strategic.
This course may be taken as a part of the following programs: