During the June 2003 referendum on Poland’s accession to the European Union the majority of participating electorate voted in the affirmative. Four variables influenced the voting patterns. The votes were strongly differentiated regionally with the most support in the west and least in the east. They further showed the divide between rural and urban dwellers and between occupations with the industrial and service job-holders more inclined toward the EU than these employed in agriculture. Last but not least, the level of enthusiasm for the EU reflected one’s income and unemployment status. These factors will most likely persist in future elections and referenda in Poland.
Eurasian Geography and Economics vol. 45, no. 7 (2004): 465-480